Bal Dit, Sollier C., Caplain, H., and Drouet, L. No alteration in platelet function or coagulation induced by EGb761 in a controlled study. Clin Lab Haematol. 2003;25(4):251-253. View abstract.

Baliutyte, G., Baniene, R., Gendviliene, V., Martisiene, I., Trumbeckaite, S., Borutaite, V., and Toleikis, A. Influence of ethanol extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves on the isolated rat heart work and mitochondria functions. J Cardiovasc.Pharmacol 2012;59(5):450-457. View abstract.

Biber, A. Pharmacokinetics of Ginkgo biloba extracts. Pharmacopsychiatry 2003;36 Suppl 1:S32-S37. View abstract.

Birks, J. and Grimley, Evans J. Ginkgo biloba for cognitive impairment and dementia. Cochrane Database Syst.Rev. 2009;(1):CD003120. View abstract.

Bredie, S. J. and Jong, M. C. No significant effect of ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 in the treatment of primary Raynaud phenomenon: a randomized controlled trial. J Cardiovasc.Pharmacol 2012;59(3):215-221. View abstract.

Brinkley, T. E., Lovato, J. F., Arnold, A. M., Furberg, C. D., Kuller, L. H., Burke, G. L., Nahin, R. L., Lopez, O. L., Yasar, S., and Williamson, J. D. Effect of Ginkgo biloba on blood pressure and incidence of hypertension in elderly men and women. Am J Hypertens. 2010;23(5):528-533. View abstract.

Brochet, B., Guinot, P., Orgogozo, J. M., Confavreux, C., Rumbach, L., and Lavergne, V. Double blind placebo controlled multicentre study of ginkgolide B in treatment of acute exacerbations of multiple sclerosis. The Ginkgolide Study Group in multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1995;58(3):360-362. View abstract.

Burkard G. [The efficacy and safety of ginkgo biloba extract in dementia]. Fortschr Med [Supp] 1991;109(107):6-8.

Canter, P. H. and Ernst, E. Ginkgo biloba is not a smart drug: an updated systematic review of randomised clinical trials testing the nootropic effects of G. biloba extracts in healthy people. Hum.Psychopharmacol. 2007;22(5):265-278. View abstract.

Choi, W. S., Choi, C. J., Kim, K. S., Lee, J. H., Song, C. H., Chung, J. H., Ock, S. M., Lee, J. B., and Kim, C. M. To compare the efficacy and safety of nifedipine sustained release with Ginkgo biloba extract to treat patients with primary Raynaud’s phenomenon in South Korea; Korean Raynaud study (KOARA study). Clin Rheumatol. 2009;28(5):553-559. View abstract.

Cockle, S. M., Kimber, S., and Hindmarch, I. The effects of Ginkgo biloba extract (LI 1370) supplementation on activities of daily living in free living older volunteers: a questionnaire survey. Hum.Psychopharmacol. 2000;15(4):227-235. View abstract.

D’Andrea, G., Bussone, G., Allais, G., Aguggia, M., D’Onofrio, F., Maggio, M., Moschiano, F., Saracco, M. G., Terzi, M. G., Petretta, V., and Benedetto, C. Efficacy of Ginkgolide B in the prophylaxis of migraine with aura. Neurol.Sci 2009;30 Suppl 1:S121-S124. View abstract.

Dardano, A., Ballardin, M., Caraccio, N., Boni, G., Traino, C., Mariani, G., Ferdeghini, M., Barale, R., and Monzani, F. The effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on genotoxic damage in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma receiving thyroid remnant ablation with iodine-131. Thyroid 2012;22(3):318-324. View abstract.

Deng, F. and Zito, S. W. Development and validation of a gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric method for simultaneous identification and quantification of marker compounds including bilobalide, ginkgolides and flavonoids in Ginkgo biloba L. extract and pharmaceutical preparations. J Chromatogr.A 1-31-2003;986(1):121-127. View abstract.

Deng, Y. K., Wei, F., and An, B. Q. [Effect of ginkgo biloba extract on plasma vascular endothelial growth factor during peri-operative period of cardiac surgery]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 2009;29(1):40-42. View abstract.

Donfrancesco, R. and Ferrante, L. Ginkgo biloba in dyslexia: a pilot study. Phytomedicine 2007;14(6):367-370. View abstract.

Engelsen, J., Nielsen, J. D., and Hansen, K. F. [Effect of Coenzyme Q10 and Ginkgo biloba on warfarin dosage in patients on long-term warfarin treatment. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over trial]. Ugeskr.Laeger 4-28-2003;165(18):1868-1871. View abstract.

Esposito, M. and Carotenuto, M. Ginkgolide B complex efficacy for brief prophylaxis of migraine in school-aged children: an open-label study. Neurol.Sci 9-25-2010; View abstract.

Fan, L., Tao, G. Y., Wang, G., Chen, Y., Zhang, W., He, Y. J., Li, Q., Lei, H. P., Jiang, F., Hu, D. L., Huang, Y. F., and Zhou, H. H. Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract ingestion on the pharmacokinetics of talinolol in healthy Chinese volunteers. Ann Pharmacother. 2009;43(5):944-949. View abstract.

Fessenden JM, Wittenborn W, and Clarke L. Ginkgo biloba: a case report of herbal medicine and bleeding postoperatively from a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Am Surg 2001;67(1):33-35.

Guillon, J. M., Rochette, L., and Baranes, J. [Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on 2 models of experimental myocardial ischemia]. Presse Med 9-25-1986;15(31):1516-1519. View abstract.

Han, S. S., Nam, E. C., Won, J. Y., Lee, K. U., Chun, W., Choi, H. K., and Levine, R. A. Clonazepam quiets tinnitus: a randomised crossover study with Ginkgo biloba. J Neurol.Neurosurg.Psychiatry 2012;83(8):821-827. View abstract.

Hao, Y., Sun, Y., Xu, C., Jiang, X., Sun, H., Wu, Q., Yan, C., and Gu, S. Improvement of contractile function in isolated cardiomyocytes from ischemia-reperfusion rats by ginkgolide B pretreatment. J Cardiovasc.Pharmacol 2009;54(1):3-9. View abstract.

Hauns, B., Haring, B., Kohler, S., Mross, K., Robben-Bathe, P., and Unger, C. Phase II study with 5-fluorouracil and ginkgo biloba extract (GBE 761 ONC) in patients with pancreatic cancer. Arzneimittelforschung 1999;49(12):1030-1034. View abstract.

He, M., Zhang, X. M., and Yuan, H. Q. [Clinical study on treatment of pulmonary interstitial fibrosis with ginkgo extract]. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 2005;25(3):222-224. View abstract.

Herrschaft, H., Nacu, A., Likhachev, S., Sholomov, I., Hoerr, R., and Schlaefke, S. Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761(R) in dementia with neuropsychiatric features: a randomised, placebo-controlled trial to confirm the efficacy and safety of a daily dose of 240 mg. J Psychiatr.Res 2012;46(6):716-723. View abstract.

Ito, T. Y., Trant, A. S., and Polan, M. L. A double-blind placebo-controlled study of ArginMax, a nutritional supplement for enhancement of female sexual function. J Sex Marital Ther 2001;27(5):541-549. View abstract.

Janssen, I. M., Sturtz, S., Skipka, G., Zentner, A., Velasco, Garrido M., and Busse, R. Ginkgo biloba in Alzheimer’s disease: a systematic review. Wien.Med Wochenschr. 2010;160(21-22):539-546. View abstract.

Janssens, D., Michiels, C., Delaive, E., Eliaers, F., Drieu, K., and Remacle, J. Protection of hypoxia-induced ATP decrease in endothelial cells by ginkgo biloba extract and bilobalide. Biochem Pharmacol 9-28-1995;50(7):991-999. View abstract.

Jiang, W., Qiu, W., Wang, Y., Cong, Q., Edwards, D., Ye, B., and Xu, C. Ginkgo may prevent genetic-associated ovarian cancer risk: multiple biomarkers and anticancer pathways induced by ginkgolide B in BRCA1-mutant ovarian epithelial cells. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2011;20(6):508-517. View abstract.

Kampman, K., Majewska, M. D., Tourian, K., Dackis, C., Cornish, J., Poole, S., and O’Brien, C. A pilot trial of piracetam and ginkgo biloba for the treatment of cocaine dependence. Addict.Behav 2003;28(3):437-448. View abstract.

Kaschel, R. Ginkgo biloba: specificity of neuropsychological improvement-a selective review in search of differential effects. Hum.Psychopharmacol. 2009;24(5):345-370. View abstract.

Kaschel, R. Specific memory effects of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 in middle-aged healthy volunteers. Phytomedicine 11-15-2011;18(14):1202-1207. View abstract.

Kennedy, D. O., Haskell, C. F., Mauri, P. L., and Scholey, A. B. Acute cognitive effects of standardised Ginkgo biloba extract complexed with phosphatidylserine. Hum.Psychopharmacol. 2007;22(4):199-210. View abstract.

Kim, T. E., Kim, B. H., Kim, J., Kim, K. P., Yi, S., Shin, H. S., Lee, Y. O., Lee, K. H., Shin, S. G., Jang, I. J., and Yu, K. S. Comparison of the pharmacokinetics of ticlopidine between administration of a combined fixed-dose tablet formulation of ticlopidine 250 mg/ginkgo extract 80 mg, and concomitant administration of ticlopidine 250-mg and ginkgo extract 80-mg tablets: an open-label, two-treatment, single-dose, randomized-sequence crossover study in healthy Korean male volunteers. Clin Ther 2009;31(10):2249-2257. View abstract.

Koltai, M., Tosaki, A., Hosford, D., and Braquet, P. Ginkgolide B protects isolated hearts against arrhythmias induced by ischemia but not reperfusion. Eur J Pharmacol 5-19-1989;164(2):293-302. View abstract.

Kose, K. and Dogan, P. Lipoperoxidation induced by hydrogen peroxide in human erythrocyte membranes. 1. Protective effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761). J Int Med Res 1995;23(1):1-8. View abstract.

Laws, K. R., Sweetnam, H., and Kondel, T. K. Is Ginkgo biloba a cognitive enhancer in healthy individuals? A meta-analysis. Hum.Psychopharmacol. 2012;27(6):527-533. View abstract.

Leadbetter, G., Keyes, L. E., Maakestad, K. M., Olson, S., Tissot van Patot, M. C., and Hackett, P. H. Ginkgo biloba does-and does not-prevent acute mountain sickness. Wilderness.Environ.Med 2009;20(1):66-71. View abstract.

Lee, J., Sohn, S. W., and Kee, C. Effect of Ginkgo biloba Extract on Visual Field Progression in Normal Tension Glaucoma. J Glaucoma. 5-16-2012; View abstract.

Lei, H. P., Wang, G., Wang, L. S., Ou-yang, D. S., Chen, H., Li, Q., Zhang, W., Tan, Z. R., Fan, L., He, Y. J., and Zhou, H. H. Lack of effect of Ginkgo biloba on voriconazole pharmacokinetics in Chinese volunteers identified as CYP2C19 poor and extensive metabolizers. Ann Pharmacother. 2009;43(4):726-731. View abstract.

Lin, Y. Y., Chu, S. J., and Tsai, S. H. Association between priapism and concurrent use of risperidone and Ginkgo biloba. Mayo Clin Proc 2007;82(10):1289-1290. View abstract.

Lovera, J. F., Kim, E., Heriza, E., Fitzpatrick, M., Hunziker, J., Turner, A. P., Adams, J., Stover, T., Sangeorzan, A., Sloan, A., Howieson, D., Wild, K., Haselkorn, J., and Bourdette, D. Ginkgo biloba does not improve cognitive function in MS: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Neurology 9-18-2012;79(12):1278-1284. View abstract.

Lovera, J., Bagert, B., Smoot, K., Morris, C. D., Frank, R., Bogardus, K., Wild, K., Oken, B., Whitham, R., and Bourdette, D. Ginkgo biloba for the improvement of cognitive performance in multiple sclerosis: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Mult.Scler. 2007;13(3):376-385. View abstract.

May, B. H., Yang, A. W., Zhang, A. L., Owens, M. D., Bennett, L., Head, R., Cobiac, L., Li, C. G., Hugel, H., Story, D. F., and Xue, C. C. Chinese herbal medicine for Mild Cognitive Impairment and Age Associated Memory Impairment: a review of randomised controlled trials. Biogerontology. 2009;10(2):109-123. View abstract.

Napryeyenko, O., Sonnik, G., and Tartakovsky, I. Efficacy and tolerability of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 by type of dementia: analyses of a randomised controlled trial. J Neurol.Sci 8-15-2009;283(1-2):224-229. View abstract.

Nicolai, S. P., Gerardu, V. C., Kruidenier, L. M., Prins, M. H., and Teijink, J. A. From the Cochrane library: Ginkgo biloba for intermittent claudication. Vasa 2010;39(2):153-158. View abstract.

Oberpichler, H., Beck, T., Abdel-Rahman, M. M., Bielenberg, G. W., and Krieglstein, J. Effects of Ginkgo biloba constituents related to protection against brain damage caused by hypoxia. Pharmacol Res Commun 1988;20(5):349-368. View abstract.

Ozgoli, G., Selselei, E. A., Mojab, F., and Majd, H. A. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of Ginkgo biloba L. in treatment of premenstrual syndrome. J Altern.Complement Med 2009;15(8):845-851. View abstract.

Parsad, D., Pandhi, R., and Juneja, A. Effectiveness of oral Ginkgo biloba in treating limited, slowly spreading vitiligo. Clin Exp.Dermatol. 2003;28(3):285-287. View abstract.

Patel, N. Herbal remedies. Br.Dent.J 8-28-2010;209(4):153. View abstract.

Pedroso, J. L., Henriques Aquino, C. C., Escorcio Bezerra, M. L., Baiense, R. F., Suarez, M. M., Dutra, L. A., Braga-Neto, P., and Povoas Barsottini, O. G. Ginkgo biloba and cerebral bleeding: a case report and critical review. Neurologist. 2011;17(2):89-90. View abstract.

Penzak, S. R., Busse, K. H., Robertson, S. M., Formentini, E., Alfaro, R. M., and Davey, R. T., Jr. Limitations of using a single postdose midazolam concentration to predict CYP3A-mediated drug interactions. J Clin Pharmacol 2008;48(6):671-680. View abstract.

Plaschke, K., Bergmann, M., and Kopitz, J. Ginkgo extract EGb 761((R)) shields from slowly accumulating neurodegenerative-like changes in a newly developed cell culture model induced by the combined action of low doses of antimycin A1 and 2-deoxy-D-glucose. J Neural Transm. 2011;118(8):1247-1254. View abstract.

Robertson, S. M., Davey, R. T., Voell, J., Formentini, E., Alfaro, R. M., and Penzak, S. R. Effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on lopinavir, midazolam and fexofenadine pharmacokinetics in healthy subjects. Curr Med Res Opin 2008;24(2):591-599. View abstract.

Russo, V., Rago, A., Russo, G. M., Calabro, R., and Nigro, G. Ginkgo biloba: an ancient tree with new arrhythmic side effects. J Postgrad.Med 2011;57(3):221. View abstract.

Russo, V., Stella, A., Appezzati, L., Barone, A., Stagni, E., Roszkowska, A., and Delle, Noci N. Clinical efficacy of a Ginkgo biloba extract in the topical treatment of allergic conjunctivitis. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2009;19(3):331-336. View abstract.

Satoh, H. Comparative Electropharmacological Actions of Some Constituents from Ginkgo biloba Extract in Guinea-pig Ventricular Cardiomyocytes. Evid.Based.Complement Alternat.Med. 2004;1(3):277-284. View abstract.

Schennen, A. and Holzl, J. [6-Hydroxykynurenic Acid, the First N-Containing Compound from the Ginkgo biloba Leaf.]. Planta Med 1986;52(3):235-236. View abstract.

Scripnikov, A., Khomenko, A., and Napryeyenko, O. Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 on neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia: findings from a randomised controlled trial. Wien.Med Wochenschr. 2007;157(13-14):295-300. View abstract.

Singh, B., Song, H., Liu, X. D., Hardy, M., Liu, G. Z., Vinjamury, S. P., and Martirosian, C. D. Dangshen (Codonopsis pilosula) and Bai guo (Gingko biloba) enhance learning and memory. Altern Ther Health Med 2004;10(4):52-56. View abstract.

Singh, V., Singh, S. P., and Chan, K. Review and meta-analysis of usage of ginkgo as an adjunct therapy in chronic schizophrenia. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2010;13(2):257-271. View abstract.

Skogh, M. Extracts of Ginkgo biloba and bleeding or haemorrhage. Lancet 10-3-1998;352(9134):1145-1146. View abstract.

Snitz, B. E., O’Meara, E. S., Carlson, M. C., Arnold, A. M., Ives, D. G., Rapp, S. R., Saxton, J., Lopez, O. L., Dunn, L. O., Sink, K. M., and DeKosky, S. T. Ginkgo biloba for preventing cognitive decline in older adults: a randomized trial. JAMA 12-23-2009;302(24):2663-2670. View abstract.

Sticher, O. Quality of Ginkgo preparations. Planta Med 1993;59(1):2-11. View abstract.

Sumboonnanonda, K. and Lertsithichai, P. Clinical study of the Ginko biloba-Troxerutin-Heptaminol Hce in the treatment of acute hemorrhoidal attacks. J Med.Assoc.Thai. 2004;87(2):137-142. View abstract.

Suter, A., Niemer, W., and Klopp, R. A new ginkgo fresh plant extract increases microcirculation and radical scavenging activity in elderly patients. Adv.Ther 2011;28(12):1078-1088. View abstract.

Szabo, M. E., Droy-Lefaix, M. T., and Doly, M. Direct measurement of free radicals in ischemic/reperfused diabetic rat retina. Clin Neurosci. 1997;4(5):240-245. View abstract.

Szabo, M. E., Droy-Lefaix, M. T., and Doly, M. EGb 761 and the recovery of ion imbalance in ischemic reperfused diabetic rat retina. Ophthalmic Res 1995;27(2):102-109. View abstract.

Szabo, M. E., Droy-Lefaix, M. T., Doly, M., and Braquet, P. Free radical-mediated effects in reperfusion injury: a histologic study with superoxide dismutase and EGB 761 in rat retina. Ophthalmic Res 1991;23(4):225-234. View abstract.

Thomas, M., Sheran, J., Smith, N., Fonseca, S., and Lee, A. J. AKL1, a botanical mixture for the treatment of asthma: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. BMC.Pulm.Med 2007;7:4. View abstract.

Thorpe, L. B., Goldie, M., and Dolan, S. Central and local administration of Gingko biloba extract EGb 761(R) inhibits thermal hyperalgesia and inflammation in the rat carrageenan model. Anesth.Analg. 2011;112(5):1226-1231. View abstract.

Trick, L., Boyle, J., and Hindmarch, I. The effects of Ginkgo biloba extract (LI 1370) supplementation and discontinuation on activities of daily living and mood in free living older volunteers. Phytother.Res. 2004;18(7):531-537. View abstract.

Van Dongen, M., van Rossum, E., Kessels, A., Sielhorst, H., and Knipschild, P. Ginkgo for elderly people with dementia and age-associated memory impairment: a randomized clinical trial. J Clin Epidemiol. 2003;56(4):367-376. View abstract.

Vellas, B., Coley, N., Ousset, P. J., Berrut, G., Dartigues, J. F., Dubois, B., Grandjean, H., Pasquier, F., Piette, F., Robert, P., Touchon, J., Garnier, P., Mathiex-Fortunet, H., and Andrieu, S. Long-term use of standardised Ginkgo biloba extract for the prevention of Alzheimer’s disease (GuidAge): a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Neurol. 2012;11(10):851-859. View abstract.

Victoire C, Haag-Berrurier M, Lobstein-Guth A, and et al. Isolation of flavonoid glycosides from Ginkgo biloba leaves. Planta Med 1988;54:245-247.

Wang, B. S., Wang, H., Song, Y. Y., Qi, H., Rong, Z. X., Wang, B. S., Zhang, L., and Chen, H. Z. Effectiveness of standardized ginkgo biloba extract on cognitive symptoms of dementia with a six-month treatment: a bivariate random effect meta-analysis. Pharmacopsychiatry 2010;43(3):86-91. View abstract.

Wang, F. M., Yao, T. W., and Zeng, S. Disposition of quercetin and kaempferol in human following an oral administration of Ginkgo Biloba extract tablets. Eur.J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2003;28(3):173-177. View abstract.

Weinmann, S., Roll, S., Schwarzbach, C., Vauth, C., and Willich, S. N. Effects of Ginkgo biloba in dementia: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC.Geriatr. 2010;10:14. View abstract.

Woelkart, K., Feizlmayr, E., Dittrich, P., Beubler, E., Pinl, F., Suter, A., and Bauer, R. Pharmacokinetics of bilobalide, ginkgolide A and B after administration of three different Ginkgo biloba L. preparations in humans. Phytother.Res 2010;24(3):445-450. View abstract.

Xie, Z. Q., Liang, G., Zhang, L., Wang, Q., Qu, Y., Gao, Y., Lin, L. B., Ye, S., Zhang, J., Wang, H., Zhao, G. P., and Zhang, Q. H. Molecular mechanisms underlying the cholesterol-lowering effect of Ginkgo biloba extract in hepatocytes: a comparative study with lovastatin. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2009;30(9):1262-1275. View abstract.

Xu, A. H., Chen, H. S., Sun, B. C., Xiang, X. R., Chu, Y. F., Zhai, F., and Jia, L. C. Therapeutic mechanism of ginkgo biloba exocarp polysaccharides on gastric cancer. World J Gastroenterol. 2003;9(11):2424-2427. View abstract.

Yancheva, S., Ihl, R., Nikolova, G., Panayotov, P., Schlaefke, S., and Hoerr, R. Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761(R), donepezil or both combined in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease with neuropsychiatric features: a randomised, double-blind, exploratory trial. Aging Ment.Health 2009;13(2):183-190. View abstract.

Yang Z, Li W Huang T Chen J Zhang X. Meta-analysis of Ginkgo biloba extract for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Neural Regeneration Research. 2011;6(15):1125-1129.

Yoshioka, M., Ohnishi, N., Koishi, T., Obata, Y., Nakagawa, M., Matsumoto, T., Tagagi, K., Takara, K., Ohkuni, T., Yokoyama, T., and Kuroda, K. Studies on interactions between functional foods or dietary supplements and medicines. IV. Effects of ginkgo biloba leaf extract on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of nifedipine in healthy volunteers. Biol.Pharm.Bull. 2004;27(12):2006-2009. View abstract.

Yoshioka, M., Ohnishi, N., Sone, N., Egami, S., Takara, K., Yokoyama, T., and Kuroda, K. Studies on interactions between functional foods or dietary supplements and medicines. III. Effects of ginkgo biloba leaf extract on the pharmacokinetics of nifedipine in rats. Biol.Pharm.Bull. 2004;27(12):2042-2045. View abstract.

Zaghlool SS, Hanaf LK Afifi NM Ibrahim ER. Histological and immunohistochemical study on the protective effect of Ginkgo biloba extract against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in male albino rat retinal cells. The Egyptian Journal of Histology. 2012;35(1):176-188.

Zhang, S. J. and Xue, Z. Y. Effect of Western medicine therapy assisted by Ginkgo biloba tablet on vascular cognitive impairment of none dementia. Asian Pac.J Trop.Med 2012;5(8):661-664. View abstract.

Zhang, S., Chen, B., Wu, W., Bao, L., and Qi, R. Ginkgolide B reduces inflammatory protein expression in oxidized low-density lipoprotein-stimulated human vascular endothelial cells. J Cardiovasc.Pharmacol 2011;57(6):721-727. View abstract.

Zhang, W. F., Tan, Y. L., Zhang, X. Y., Chan, R. C., Wu, H. R., and Zhou, D. F. Extract of Ginkgo biloba treatment for tardive dyskinesia in schizophrenia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Psychiatry 2011;72(5):615-621. View abstract.

Zhang, X. Y., Zhou, D. F., Zhang, P. Y., Wu, G. Y., Su, J. M., and Cao, L. Y. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of extract of Ginkgo biloba added to haloperidol in treatment-resistant patients with schizophrenia. J Clin Psychiatry 2001;62(11):878-883. View abstract.

Zhou, Y. and Zeng, R. [Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on anticoagulation and blood drug level of warfarin in healthy wolunteers]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2011;36(16):2290-2293. View abstract.

Zhu, L., Gao, J., Wang, Y., Zhao, X. N., and Zhang, Z. X. Neuron degeneration induced by verapamil and attenuated by EGb761. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 1997;8(4):301-314. View abstract.

<p>Brochet, B., Orgogozo, J. M., Guinot, P., Dartigues, J. F., Henry, P., and Loiseau, P. [Pilot study of Ginkgolide B, a PAF-acether specific inhibitor in the treatment of acute outbreaks of multiple sclerosis]. Rev.Neurol (Paris) 1992;148(4):299-301.</p> View abstract.

<p>Nathan, P. J., Tanner, S., Lloyd, J., Harrison, B., Curran, L., Oliver, C., and Stough, C. Effects of a combined extract of Ginkgo biloba and Bacopa monniera on cognitive function in healthy humans. Hum.Psychopharmacol. 2004;19(2):91-96.</p> View abstract.

<p>Rejali, D., Sivakumar, A., and Balaji, N. Ginkgo biloba does not benefit patients with tinnitus: a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind trial and meta-analysis of randomized trials. Clin.Otolaryngol.Allied Sci. 2004;29(3):226-231.</p> View abstract.

<p>Usai, S., Grazzi, L., and Bussone, G. Gingkolide B as migraine preventive treatment in young age: results at 1-year follow-up. Neurol.Sci 2011;32 Suppl 1:S197-S199.</p> View abstract.

Amri H, Ogwuegbu SO, Boujrad N, et al. In vivo regulation of peripheral-type benzodiazepine and glucocorticoid synthesis by Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 and isolated ginkgolides. Endocrinology 1996;137:5707-18. View abstract.

Arenz A, Kelin M, Flehe K, et al. Occurrence of neurotoxic 4′-O-methylpyridoxine in ginkgo biloba leaves, ginkgo medications and Japanese ginkgo food. Planta Med 1996;62:548-51. View abstract.

Aruna D, Naidu MU. Pharmacodynamic interaction studies of Ginkgo biloba with cilostazol and clopidogrel in healthy human subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2007;63:333-8. View abstract.

Ashton AK, Ahrens K, Gupta S, Masand PS. Antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction and Ginkgo biloba. Am J Psychiatry 2000;157:836-7. View abstract.

Aziz TA, Hussain SA, Mahwi TO, Ahmed ZA, Rahman HS, Rasedee A. The efficacy and safety of Ginkgo biloba extract as an adjuvant in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients ineffectively managed with metformin: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Drug Des Devel Ther. 2018;12:735-742. View abstract.

Bai J, Zhang C. Metabolic interaction between biflavonoids in Ginkgo biloba leaves and tacrolimus. Biopharm Drug Dispos 2023;44(2):157-164. View abstract.

Bajenaru O, Prada G, Antochi F, et al. Effectiveness and safety profile of Ginkgo biloba standardized extract (EGb761®) in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 2021 Feb 8. doi: 10.2174/1871527320666210208125524. View abstract.

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